EOS newbie here. Thanks for any insight. If you can point me towards more info, great.

  • What kind of cryptographic proof do you expect from querying a secondary index - or any other index in general?
    – cmadh
    Sep 16, 2022 at 12:10

1 Answer 1


No. There is no cryptographic proof for queries querying the blockchains state.

Cryptographic proofs are not applied to individual parts of the state or individual rows as the state itself rather results and is derivable and provable from the cryptographic proofs contained in the full history of the blockchain.

Cryptographic proofs for any smallest part of the state would mean to have a full history / a chain of all transactions and actions affecting a specific row, for every individual row in a table which clearly makes no sense and would drastically increase expenes for running leap-nodes.

If you want to proof the validity of a specific table or row the easiest way is to replay the whole blockchain or to verify every individual transaction and action that had an effect on the state of the table and it's rows. You could do so by querying historical data through hyperion or dfuse but it's probably easier to replay the whole chain and to verify that the whole resulting state is correct.

Even verifying every individual transaction affecting the state and specific rows would alone not verify the state as there could be transactions indirectly (without a direct effect on the specific rows but on logic resulting in modifying these rows within other transactions/actions) affecting the state.

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