it seems you have increased the right limits.
it is still failing because your laptop configuration it is too slow for this transaction to execute in the block time limits (no transaction can take longer than maximum block time of 500 ms, this is not configurable, maybe in future versions...).
is your laptop CPU maxed out while running these commands/tests?
I have the feeling your network and your producers are not configured correctly, with correct configuration your questions are probably unnecessary.
If you follow the eosio-bios-boot-sequence-tutorial your network should be set up correctly.
A few things regarding keys and signing in short.
While setting up your network, you need to create one eos-account ...
The information you get from peers depends on if it is an "incoming" connection or an "outgoing" connection. If peer A is configured to connect to peer B and peer B is configured to connect to peer A, only one of these connections will be active, the other will be marked duplicate and dropped. All p2p connections are bi-directional, so ...
Since you have 2 servers in sync, you could remove all the nodeos state from the server that is corrupted and sync the blocks back from the properly working nodes.
Remove all the nodeos blocks and state, and start nodeos with just the genesis.
If in doubt make a backup of your blocks and state first before erasing so you can recover if something goes wrong.
In your case it sounds like you have 3 servers with the same set of blocks. You could manually shutdown one of the 2 working servers and copy all the blocks and state to the non-working server.
Best way to copy is to create a tar archive, copy the archive, then restore it.
tar --sparse -cf mybackup.tar [insert location of nodeos blocks and state]
Nodeos requires that it is shutdown cleanly. Make sure you allow enough time for the state to be written to disk. On a big blockchain with a slow disk, shutdown could take a minute or more.
If you don't shutdown cleanly, then you will need to replay the chain from scratch to rebuild the state or or use a previously saved state snapshot file. More details ...